Location: Various cities
Adequate amounts of lightly compacted, good-quality soil are essential to healthy tree growth.
Nowhere are these conditions more challenging than in urban areas dominated by streets, sidewalks, buildings and parking lots. These surfaces are essential for urban living but require heavy soil compaction, which limits the development of large, healthy root systems.
The USDA Forest Service recently determined that U.S. cities are losing around 4 million trees annually — this at a time when average urban canopy cover in North America is still lower in most places than what is recommended by American Forests.
Still, it’s not all doom and gloom. Cities across North America recognize that in order to have healthy, vibrant urban forests, they need to plant trees in more soil.
Guidelines already exist that correlate tree size directly with available soil volume, so this isn’t a matter of guesswork. What these cities are doing is simple, but remarkable: They are literally changing their landscapes by mandating that all street trees (used here as a general term to mean any tree planted in a paved area) receive a certain minimum amount of soil.
We’ve identified the following communities for their ambitious policies that are redefining requirements for green utilities, specifically for trees, soil and stormwater management:
Toronto, ON –
Perhaps the most ambitious initiative we’ve yet seen, the City of Toronto calls for street trees to get a minimum of 15 m3 (529 ft 3)of high quality soil per tree if in a shared planter, and a minimum volume of 30 m3 (1,059 ft3) of soil per tree if in a single planter.
Oakville, ON –
this City requirement calls for 30m3 (1,059 ft3) of soil per tree, or 15 m3 (530 ft3) if in a shared trench.
Baltimore, MD –
This initiative sets an example for increasing the tree canopy as a way to preserve the environment and manage stormwater. Using permeable paving, landscaping, rain gardens, and green roofs, it asks for sites to filter more than 50 percent of stormwater runoff from areas and install at least 1,500 cubic feet of soil for tree pits using structural soils or suspended pavement for any new impervious surfaces or retrofit/redevelopment projects.
University of Florida (IFAS Extension) –
The project created an Urban Design for a Wind Resistant Urban Forest. Planners increased the soil and depth requirements to allow trees to mature and live longer using the following guidelines (soil area based on mature tree size, 3’ deep or greater):
• Small (shorter than 30’) = 10’x10’x3’ = 300 ft3
• Medium (Less than 50’ height or spread) = 20’x20’x3’ = 1,200 ft3
• Large (Greater than 50’ height or spread) = 30’x30’x3’ = 2,700 ft3
State of West Virginia –
The community created a municipal handbook to manage wet weather through specific green infrastructure and made the following soil recommendations based on those from Prince William County, VA:
• Large tree = 970 ft3,
• Medium tree = 750 ft3 and
• Small tree = 500 ft3
Athens-Clarke County, GA –
The community created best management practices for community tree planting and soil volume minimums:
• Small Canopy: 100 square feet x 2’ deep = 200 ft3,
• Medium Canopy: 225 square feet x 2’ deep = 450 ft3 and
• Large Canopy: 400 square feet x 2’ deep = 800 ft3
State of Minnesota –
Where trees are planted in hard surfaces, the community uses a structural soil media mix of minimum soil volume of 500 cubic feet (cf) per tree. If soil volumes cannot be met it is recommended that trees be planted in minimum 8′ wide by approximately 3′ deep trenches so that soil volumes are shared between trees.
Charlotte, NC –
Planners amended the planting area requirements and recommendations for commercial development to increase the absolute minimum soil volume and planting area to 274 square feet per tree. The minimum width of the planting area is 8’ at the trunk of the tree.
British Columbia -
Recommended minimum soil volume per tree of 6m3 (212ft3), and more is better.
Markham, ON –
These design guidelines make the following soil volume recommendations:
• Large stature tree in boulevard = 30 cubic meters/1,059 cubic feet (if single) or 15 cubic meters/530 cubic feet (if shared) of root space,
• Medium stature tree in boulevard = 23 cubic meters/812 cubic feet of root space,
• Small stature tree = 15 cubic meters/530 cubic feet root space
• Minimum soil volume for tree planting in a parking lot island is 15 cubic meters/530 cubic feet.
Aspen, CO –
The community amended its structural soils specifications so that soil area is now based on a targeted mature tree size, requiring 30 inches or more depth and a correcsponding increase in soil volume.
Soil area based on mature tree size, 30” deep or greater:
• Small (shorter than 30’) = 10’x10’x2.5’ = 250 ft3,
• Medium (Less than 50’ height or spread) = 20’x20’x2.5’ = 1,000 ft3,
• Large (Greater than 50’ height or spread) = 30’x30’x2.5’ = 2,250 ft3
Chicago, IL -
The city amended planting standards and now requires parkway trees to have a minimum depth of three feet of soil. Planting areas require a minimum of 24 square feet of surface area with no dimension less than three feet.
Denver, CO –
The city’s “Street Tree Plan Review Checklist” sets a soil volume minimum of 750 cubic feet of soil per tree and states that, “5’ x 5’ pit areas shall no longer be accepted, must use trenches, root paths, break out zones, structural cells, or other un-compacted soil technology.”
Emeryville, CA -
The community requires minimum rootable soil volumes for new trees planted in the public right of way by private developers. The minimum is based on the size of the tree at maturity:
• 600 cubic feet for a small tree,
• 900 for a medium tree and
• 1200 for a large tree.
Alexandria, VA –
The city’s Landscape Guidelines specify that street trees be provided with a minimum of 300 cubic feet of soil per tree and recommends that one tree be present for every ten spaces in parking areas.
Are any of these perfect? Probably not.
Certainly there are things we would change about almost all of them. Still, setting soil volume minimums for street trees tacitly enforces the message that business as usual as far as tree planting is concerned isn’t good enough.
We need to rethink how we plan for our urban forests and the role of green infrastructure in the built environment. The new game in town is high performance urban forestry.
Are you involved with making soil volume recommendations for trees? Hopefully you can use some of this information to help persuade your co-workers and clients of this important effort.
Should your city or town be on this list, or do you know of any others that we missed? We want to hear about your goals for growing healthy trees in your community.
(from Deep Root Corporation)
"Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world.
Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has"
Margaret Mead, Anthropologist
(used with permission)
"If you don't like the news .... go out and make some of your own !!"
Wes "Scoop" Nisker, Newscaster
Government is a slow and tedious process. While it often includes citizen and neighborhood involvement, non-governmental, private organizations have created movements and interesting groups which can create positive change in our cities and towns.
I am fascinated by the way groups are created and how they influence public decision making. This blog merely recognizes them and forwards the description of these groups from their own websites.